Organizational Culture Research Assignment Help
organizational culture has become very popular in today’s day and age with many books, essays and academic journals trying to define and explain the topic to the average reader. Many magazines have popularized the concept of the organizational culture and have come up with multiple rankings on the topic of positive organizational culture for the organization in many surveys like the “Best Company to Work for” and so on. However the question remains unanswered as to what is a positive organizational culture and how to define it for any organization. There is infact no good or bad organizational culture and it should rather be argued as to whether the culture is relevant or not for any particular organization. The culture should be more in congruence with the ethics, values and the long term goal of any organization. So in this paper we will be discussing the various researches and findings that have been carried out on this topic and try to explain each one of them in depth (Bolman, Deal, 1997).
Literature Themes & Arguments
The cultural congruence model was defined by Edgar Schein. This definition of culture involves the concept of shared pattern assumptions which is considered to be of very good use in case of new members. It includes artifacts, espoused values and basic assumptions. These all elements are considered the basis for understanding any organizational culture.
Congruence is considered to be agreement of harmony any organization’s culture, its vision and mission and the employees of the organization. This means that if the people of any organization believe in the values that particular organization stands for, it can be very effective for the organization. But to get to this, one must determine the basic artifacts and the assumptions for any organization. Once all these have been determined, they can be assessed for the kind of fit they have with the other factors like vision, mission and the people of the organization per se (Lebo,1997, p.25). This analysis would be done by collating the data which includes the interviews, observations, surveys etc. of the organization and the various parties involved in the same. This can then be followed by a gap analysis and comparative analysis of the basic assumptions and the collated data.
This philosophy states that first the culture of any organization should be defined and then the people fit within that culture must be checked for. However at the same time this fit of the organizational culture must be checked at regular periods of time, so as to incorporate the young employees, diverse cultures and other external factors within the existing culture. Also the competitive environment may cause an organization to re- examine its corporate culture time and again, so as to retain and hire the best employees in the industry.
The company may have to tweak and change its current existing policies so as to make way for this high worth employees to become a fit in the current organizational culture of the company. This assumption is the theoretical base of the culture congruence model theory (Levering, Moskowitz, 2001, p. 148).
This model doesn’t proclaim itself to be a scientific validated theory , but it portrays the authors views and the practical approach taken in understanding the culture of any organization in particular. It is a combined effort of various theorists like Schein ,Bolman and Deal. This model is basically broken down into three steps a) Cultural assessment(where in the current culture of the organization is studied and analyzed based on various assumptions) b) Congruence Analysis ( this would show whether there is an appropriate fir between the vision, mission and the people of theorganization ) c) Gap Analysis (this would determine , if there is a gap then what the extent of such a gap is and what the organization can do in order to reduce or remove the gap completely itself)(Schein, 1992).
The first step in assessing and studying the culture of any organization is to identify the artifacts. This can be done using the method of the surveys, interviews or group meetings. Secondly one can look for the espoused values of the organization, for this most of the organizations have written values and mission statement that can be analyzed (Reis, Meryl, 1983).
This can then be checked with the collected data from the first step and check whether the artifacts match up to the written records or not. This would give us an idea of whether the people of the organization are in sync with the written value and mission statements of the company. This gap between the assumptions and the espoused values in analyzed in the second step of this process. Next the basic assumptions of the organization are identified.
This can be done using the personal interview with all the concerned people on an one to one basis and through the surveys because, the surveys don’t reveal the complete picture of the mindset within the organization because of their inherent nature of being very open. Work group discussions can also be carried out which need to facilitate by a third party, so as to get the most frank and open opinions regarding the culture within the company. All of this collated information can then be written in a report format so as to compare the assumptions and the artifacts with the espoused values of the organization and identify the gap areas where in the company and its people fail to make the fit(Schein, 1999).
There can be multiple cases of these cultural artifacts, assumption, people, espoused values and the mission of the company not being in sync with each other. The cultural artifacts can be compared to the stated values of the company. E.g. the company may proclaim to be very keen on learning and innovation but may not reward its employees who engage in doing so.
This can prove to be a great cultural misfit for the company. Secondly there can be a difference between the actual and the espoused values of the company, e.g. the company may show in its values that it’s not interested in new learning and development, however at the same time , the people within the organization may show a great deal of practical and hands on learning culture(Schein, 1985). Another way of looking at the entire scenario would be to extrapolate the culture of the organization and find out the culture that would be best suitable for the long term growth and profitability of the company.
So these new cultural values must be instilled in the company in order to achieve the preset mission of the company(Deal, Kennedy, 1982). Finally, the culture of the organization can also be decided based on the workforce where in the workforce of the company would themselves analyze the existing culture of the company and would then try to reinforce their own views and opinion on the existing culture so as to make it even better. So in cases where the culture of the company may not fit the employees and as a result they may end up taking matters in their own hand and go ahead and change the culture of the company themselves.
E.g. if a company doesn’t value the work life balance of the workforce, the workforce after a period of time might end up retaliating and try to force a different culture on the company.
The next logical and the final step after taking into account all the assumptions and the artifacts would be to conduct the gap analysis of the entire study and find out the places where the cultures of the company don’t fit and to make necessary changes as per the requirements inorder to fulfill the needs of the organization and its culture(Hofstede, 1980).
Research carried out by various authors clearly explains to us that the culture of any organization can be carried out by knowing the assumptions, artifacts, mission, people and the espoused values of any organization. But the research also reiterates the fact that the cultures are in themselves neither good nor bad. It is more important to find out the right fit for the organization and to know which of the cultural values it should imbibe or give up. Also it is necessary for the people within the organization to know about these espoused values so as to make sure that the gap between the assumptions and artifacts and the espoused values is not too large and the company can take appropriate measures to lessen this gap. The Cultural Congruence Model also helps identify what mission is more appropriate for the company to follow in the long run, so as to help te organization get back on the right track. At the same time it also helps the organization in taking the required action steps at the right to bring back the company to its right track (Kotter, Heskett, 1992). Order Now
Bolman, L. & Deal, T.,1997, Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership, San Francisco,Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Lebo, F. ,1997, Know the code. Security Management, vol. 41, issue 6, p. 25.
Levering, R. &Moskowitz, M. , 2001, The 100 best companies to work for. Fortune, 143, vol. 1, p. 148.
Schein, E. , 1992, Organizational culture and leadership (Second Edition), San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.