This Advertising Concepts Assignment deals with role and functions of advertising.
1. Use examples of recent advertisements to explain the role and functions of advertising.
Advertising: It is the non-personal communication of information by a company with its target customers to persuade them or to make them know about the products, services or ideas owned by the company and is usually done through various mediums. Advertising is used by the companies to grab public’s attention usually by paid services. It is a very important marketing tool for a company especially in the present business environment wherein on one side competition has increased a lot and at the same time profit margins have reduced. The companies need to let people know about their product, qualities, usage etc. because if the customer is not aware about the product he will not attempt to buy it. There is a huge cost involved in the advertising but this cost is justified by the sales returns it ensures and finally realizes. It is also a brand building investment whose returns are found in a comparatively short time period. There are various mediums of advertising like television, print media, billboards, internet (web advertising), radio etc. and all of these mediums have their own importance and effectiveness. There are various reasons for a company to advertise its products or services. Few of the roles of advertising:
Role of Advertising:
Branding Role: The role of advertising is to make the brand respected and sought after and let people realize the same by reinforcing their experiences. The companies use various means to make their product name as a brand by adding humour, credibility, masculinity, heritage, wit and many other characteristics. For e.g. “Axe” is a perfume company which brands itself as a product which increases the masculinity of a man. Similarly, McDonalds brands itself as the company which makes the most loved burger across the industry.
Accenture brands itself as a company which can provides high quality in its consulting services.
Awareness Role: Advertising is used to make an impact on the target customers and make them think about the product. It creates awareness about the product in the public because if they do not know they will not ask the shopkeeper even to show that product.
Persuasion role: Advertising persuades the customers to purchase the product or at least once to try the product and then decide next purchase. It is used to change the perception of customers about a product which has recent undergone some changes or has been wrongly positioned in past. It clarifies many doubts of the customers.
In the advertisements of Samsung Galaxy S3 a boy and a girl are shown on two sides of a glass partition and having the Samsung Galaxy S3 in their hands. Both of them just try to put their hands on the partition – one behind the other and it is shown that the image is transferred from the boy’s phone to the girl’s phone. Hence, the phone is advertised as an electronic gadget which understands the emotions, thus persuading people to buy it.
Tata Nano which is claimed to be the cheapest car of the world is perceived as a car for poor people. The company is using advertising to change this reputation as a car for college going people who have less money and as a car for fun-loving people also.
Reassurance Role: When customers see a product ad they recollect their previous experience and make up their mind to make the next purchase. Advertising reinforces the attitudes of customers for a given product and tells what the brand wants to deliver.
Dove Shampoo is being advertised by showing how it improves the roots of the hairs and increases shine in the hair. Hence, it reassures the viewers that if they use it, they may avoid further hair fall.
Social Targeting Role: Few of the advertisements roles the society to link their brand with them. Common examples are advertisements made for UNICEF and Help-Age.
Wish-Fulfilment Role: Advertising make people think that if they buy a given product their wish will complete. It means that the given product will help them in realizing their long cherished demand. They create favourable impression by increasing the interest level of the customers for the given product .The tour and travel companies like Cox & Kings advertisements show enjoyments, celebrations and exotic locations which people want to see from a long time.
Non-Condescending Role: Advertising needs to respect people, their ideas and should treat them equal. They should not insult any part of society even. Sometime airlines companies advertise themselves as if people have never flown which might give a wrong impression on the customers.
Pioneering Role: It means developing new styles which makes audience to think and stretch their imaginations which is also reflected in the advertisement of Axe wherein the person using it could be smelled by girls spread across the world and they come to his building by flying.
To grab attention: Many advertisements grab immediate response from the customers by using various promotional discounts and creative advertising methods.
Functions of advertising: there are various functions of advertising among which most important ones have been listed below:
1) Advertising is used to differentiate the product from those produced by the competitors. For e.g. Apple laptops differentiate themselves by using a white surface having half chewed apple. Microsoft’s Office 365 is advertised as a product which can consolidate all the office documents made by an executive, which is not found in any other products so far.
2) Advertising is used to communicate the information about the product which is most important for winning customer’s satisfaction. In the advertisement of Domino’s Pizza the company shows a triangular slice of pizza having a layer of cheese which is clearly visible from edges. It gives a sense of satisfaction to the viewers that this pizza is specially made for them.
3) Creation of Demand: It is used to create new demand about the product by sharing information or visualizing extreme needs by showing examples and sharing the key characteristics of the product. Many times advertisements create demand for a new product or use the good will of existing product to market a newly launched product.
4) Creating or Enhancing Goodwill: BP has recently undergone oil-spill accident in the
Gulf of Mexico. It needs to improve its good will and hence it is showing the initiatives taken by it to restore the environment through ad campaigns.
2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following marketing communications tools, and give two examples of application for each: Direct Marketing, Sponsorship, Public relations
Direct Marketing: It is a marketing strategy wherein the marketers directly reach the target customers with many advertising techniques like email, messaging, meeting in person, exhibitions, making interactive consumer websites, outdoor advertising etc. For e.g. a Cisco executive meeting a target customer (like a business organization) in his office and sharing the latest VoIP phone instrument manufactured by the company. Another example would be a medical sales representative meeting a doctor and sharing the drug qualities, ingredients and when it has to be used.
1) Highly effective: As the marketer knows the good qualities, usage practices and the best environment where it has to be used it can effectively position the product in front of client. Many times customer perceives the marketer’s message wrongly through television advertisements or through print media (Majeed and Razzak, 2011, p. 3045). In direct marketing the marketer can resolve all the questions and queries of the customer.
2) Measurable Results: A marketer can measure the effectiveness to some extent and can also get an ink whether the targeted customer will by the product or not. On web advertising if the customer makes a click on the advertisement it shows that the primary message has been passed successfully, otherwise the company will get to know that the given ad or banner on the website is not attracting customers attention.
1) Direct mails are often treated as junk emails and many people perceive them as something which adds clutter in their email box (Micheaux, 2011, p. 52). Sometimes, the private meetings go in wrong direction and customer feels offence.
2) High Cost: Going to an organization and meeting a person will be a costly affair many times. Also, the companies will need to have a large number of sales executive who could meet the client in person. The lead times are comparatively high as it takes a lot of time to write the marketing content, set appointment, produce the associated image, discuss the discounts etc.
It is the financial aid or in-kind support given to an activity by a company to generate publicity and to reach wider target audience than the set budget.
1) Enhancing Product Image: Sponsoring an event gives a chance to a company to directly appeal to its target market. It also shapes the attitude of the customer as expected by the company and generate positive reaction in the audience. For e.g. Coca-Cola sponsors many college events to target youngsters and to show its image as a beverage to be consumed in happy moments and while enjoying. Food and beverage companies often use sponsorship to encourage samplings and sales.
2) Low cost: It is a low cost way to create visibility of an organization in the wider target audience. Many companies have small marketing budgets and they can’t show television advertisements on recurring basis (Loewenstein, 2011, p. 106). Many local shops find it costly to make banners and distribute them across the city or give newspaper advertisements. Sponsoring an event is a cheaper marketing tactic as the event is already famous in the public and organization can also use this visibility for advertising when its name is called along with the title of the event (like Pepsi presents IPL season 5)
Public Relations: It is a practice to manage the flow of information between an organization and its target customers. It gives a chance to an organization to build good rapport with the customers by publishing news and success stories about its products through newspapers or broadcast media, which are read by the target audience.
1) Repositions the company image in the eyes of customers in a positive manner. It is a good advertising medium when a company is facing a threatening crisis and it wants to directly speak about its future strategy with the customers.
2) The customers get to know the success of the company and its products and hence it makes them to use these products or try them at least for once.
1) Many times people perceive that company only publishes favourable cases which are not possible in regular usage of the product.
2) The message to be passed by the company might be interpreted wrongly by the news media which may prove unfavourable for the company. Also, there are chances that any other breaking news in the environment takes off the customers attentions from the published news about a company.
- Gangopadhyay, A., 2002, ‘Managing Business With Electronic Commerce: Issues and Trends’,
- Idea Group Pub., pp. 132-133.
- Klososky, S 2012, ‘Social technology: the next frontier’, Financial Executive, vol. 28, no. 4, pp.40-45.
- Williams, J., Lee, W. N and Haugtvedt, C., 2004, Diversity in Advertising: Broadening the
- Scope of Research Directions, Lawrence Erlbaum, p. 122-129.
- Loewenstein, J., 2011, The repetition-break plot structure makes effective television
- Advertisements, Journal of Marketing, 75(5), pp. 105-119.